There are a number of disease and factors that can put a person at risk for amputation:
Peripheral Vascular Disease
When a person suffers from peripheral vascular disease, which is the narrowing of arteries, it may lead to blockage. When the arteries are blocked and cannot bring enough blood to legs and feet, there are not enough nutrients and oxygen needed for healing. This condition paired with a wound, causes critical limb ischemia. This is the point when a patient is in the most danger of losing a limb.
When a person has peripheral neuropathy, their nerves are damaged or diseased. This leads to a loss of sensation in the arms and legs. Often sores and injuries go unnoticed and untreated, preventing proper healing. Neuropathy is often a condition found in diabetics.
People with diabetes have an increased risk for complications from wound healing for two main reasons. First, diabetes decreases blood flow. This means sores and injuries are slower to heal in people with diabetes. Second, a lot of diabetics have neuropathy, which decreases the feeling in their outer limbs. Therefore, diabetics may not notice an injury right away. Because of these two factors, diabetic foot sores are a common issue that often leads to a bigger problem.
Smoking increasing the risk of complication from wound healing. Nicotine found in cigarettes, reduces the blood flow to the skin. The smaller vessels have a harder time carrying the proper healing factors to the wound, which causes wound healing to take longer. Also, the carbon monoxide from smoking lowers the oxygen levels that wounds need to heal, resulting in longer healing times.