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Adenomyosis is a growth of endometrial tissue that lines the uterus into the uterine walls; while nonmalignant, this growth can lead to adenomyoma, or a uterine growth or mass. Adenomyosis usually occurs in women over the age of 30 who have undergone uterine or cesarean section. Many women will suffer no symptoms, while others may have heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain during sexual intercourse and painful menstruation that gets increasingly worse. Ultrasound technology or sometimes MRI is used to evaluate masses.

Adenomyosis can sometimes lead to a condition called secondary dysmenorrhea, which a menstrual condition characterized by severe, frequent menstrual cramps and pain associated with menstruation, particularly in older women.

Treatment options such as pain medication, birth control pills, and an intrauterine device containing progesterone may be needed to decrease heavy menstrual bleeding. In the most severe case, a hysterectomy may be necessary.